The Oesophagus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Cricopharyngeus: 15 cm from upper incision teeth.
  2. Aortic arch and carina at 25 cm
  3. Diaphragmatic constriction - Hiatus
  4. Cardiac at 40 cm

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  1. Disphagia: oropharyngeal
                     oesophageal
  2. Pain
  3. Regurgitation
  4. Heart burn

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  1. History
  2. physical examination
  3. Barium swallow: anatomy and physiology
  4. Oesophagoscopy
  5. Motility studies

 

 

 

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  1. Congenital Oesophageal disorders:
    1. Oesophageal atresia(+_) Tracheo-oesophageal fistula
    2.  Stenosis
    3. Dysphagia Lusaria- Compression of the oesophagus by an abnormally crossing vessel.          
    4. Short oesophagus with hiatus hernia

 

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  1.  Rupture of the oesophagus
    1. Spontaneous
      1. Causes: Failure of cricopharyngeus sphincter to relax during vomiting
    2. Acquired
      1. Iatrogenic
      2. Traumatic

       

  2. Burns and scalds

     

  3. Oesophageal diverticulum
    1. Propulsion diverticulum ( pharyngeal pouch)
    2. Other diverticuli

     

  4. Paralysis
    1. Diphtheria
    2. Tetanus

 

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  1. Oesophagitis
    1. Acute:
      1. Corrosive fluid ingestion
      2. infective
      3. Peptic
      4. trauma
    2. Chronic:
      1. Acid reflux - sliding hiatus hernia
      2. Obesity
      3. Pregnancy
      4. Alkaline juice reflux
      5. Oesophago-duodenostomy
      6. Oesophago-jejunostomy

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  1. Reflux Oesophagitis
  1. sliding hiatus hernia
  2. obesity
  3. pregnancy
  4. Oesophago-duodenostomy
  5. Oesophago-jejunostomy

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8- Hiatus Hernia

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9- Chronic Oesophageal obstruction:

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10- Localized muscular spasm

 

 

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11- Diffuse spasm ( Presbyoesophagus)

 

 

 

 

 

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12- Tumors of the oesophagus

* Benign:

* Malignant: